Full List of Recommendations

Full List of Recommendations

For convenience, we gather here the full list of recommendations from the report, with the caveat that some meaning may be lost when taken out of context.

Recommendation 1: As the highest priority independent of the budget scenarios, complete construction projects and support operations of ongoing experiments and research to enable maximum science. We reaffirm the previous P5 recommendations on major initiatives:

  1. HL-LHC (including the ATLAS and CMS detectors, as well as the Accelerator Upgrade Project) to start addressing why the Higgs boson condensed in the universe (reveal the secrets of the Higgs boson, section 3.2), to search for direct evidence for new particles (section 5.1), to pursue quantum imprints of new phenomena (section 5.2), and to determine the nature of dark matter (section 4.1).
  2. The first phase of DUNE and PIP-II to open an era of precision neutrino measurements that include the determination of the mass ordering among neutrinos. Knowledge of this fundamental property is a crucial input to cosmology and nuclear science (elucidate the mysteries of neutrinos, section 3.1).
  3. The Vera C. Rubin Observatory to carry out the Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST), and the LSST Dark Energy Science Collaboration, to understand what drives cosmic evolution (section 4.2). In addition, we recommend continued support for the following ongoing experiments at the medium scale (project costs > $50M for DOE and > $4M for NSF), including completion of construction, operations and research:
  4. NOvA, SBN, T2K, and IceCube (elucidate the mysteries of neutrinos, section 3.1).
  5. DarkSide-20k, LZ, SuperCDMS, and XENONnT (determine the nature of dark matter, section 4.1).
  6. DESI (understand what drives cosmic evolution, section 4.2).
  7. Belle II, LHCb, and Mu2e (pursue quantum imprints of new phenomena, section 5.2).

Recommendation 2: Construct a portfolio of major projects that collectively study nearly all fundamental constituents of our universe and their interactions, as well as how those interactions determine both the cosmic past and future.

These projects have the potential to transcend and transform our current paradigms. They inspire collaboration and international cooperation in advancing the frontiers of human knowledge. Plan and start the following major initiatives in order of priority from highest to lowest:

Plan and start the following major initiatives in order of priority from highest to lowest:

  1. CMB-S4, which looks back at the earliest moments of the universe to probe physics at the highest energy scales. It is critical to install telescopes at and observe from both the South Pole and Chile sites to achieve the science goals (section 4.2).
  2. A re-envisioned second phase of DUNE with an early implementation of an enhanced 2.1 MW beam—ACE-MIRT—a third far detector, and an upgraded near-detector complex as the definitive long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment of its kind (section 3.1).
  3. An offshore Higgs factory, realized in collaboration with international partners, in order to reveal the secrets of the Higgs boson. The current designs of FCC-ee and ILC meet our scientific requirements. The US should actively engage in feasibility and design studies. Once a specific project is deemed feasible and well-defined (see also Recommendation 6), the US should aim for a contribution at funding levels com- mensurate to that of the US involvement in the LHC and HL-LHC, while maintaining a healthy US onshore program in particle physics (section 3.2).
  4. An ultimate Generation 3 (G3) dark matter direct detection experiment reaching the neutrino fog, in coordination with international partners and preferably sited in the US (section 4.1).
  5. IceCube Gen-2, for study of neutrino properties complementary to DUNE and for indirect detection of dark matter covering higher mass ranges, using non-beam neutrinos as a tool. (section 4.1).

Recommendation 3: Create an improved balance between small-, medium-, and large-scale projects to open new scientific opportunities and maximize their results, enhance workforce development, promote creativity, and compete on the world stage.

To achieve this balance across all project sizes we recommend the following:

  1. Implement a new small-project portfolio at DOE, Advancing Science and Technology through Agile Experiments (ASTAE), across science themes in particle physics with a competitive program and recurring funding opportunity announcements. This program should start with the construction of experiments from the Dark Matter New Initiatives (DMNI) by DOE-HEP (section 6.2).
  2. Continue Mid-Scale Research Infrastructure (MSRI) and Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) programs as a critical component of the NSF research and project portfolio.
  3. Support DESI-II for cosmic evolution, LHCb upgrade II and Belle II upgrade for quantum imprints, and US contributions to the global CTA Observatory for dark matter (sections 4.2, 5.2, and 4.1).

The Belle II recommendation includes contributions towards the Super-KEKB accelerator.

Recommendation 4: Support a comprehensive effort to develop the resources—theoretical, computational, and technological—essential to our 20-year vision for the field. This includes an aggressive R&D program that, while technologically challenging, could yield revolutionary accelerator designs that chart a realistic path to a 10 TeV pCM collider.

Investing in the future of the field to fulfill this vision requires the following:

  1. Support vigorous R&D toward a cost-effective 10 TeV pCM collider based on proton, muon, or possible wakefield technologies, including an evaluation of options for US siting of such a machine, with a goal of being ready to build major test facilities and demonstrator facilities within the next 10 years (sections 3.2, 5.1, 6.5, and Recommendation 6).
  2. Enhance research in theory to propel innovation, maximize scientific impact of investments in experiments, and expand our understanding of the universe (section 6.1).
  3. Expand the General Accelerator R&D (GARD) program within HEP, including stewardship (section 6.4).
  4. Invest in R&D in instrumentation to develop innovative scientific tools (section 6.3).
  5. Conduct R&D efforts to define and enable new projects in the next decade, including detectors for an e⁺e⁻ Higgs factory and 10 TeV pCM collider, Spec-S5, DUNE FD4, Mu2e-II, Advanced Muon Facility, and line intensity mapping (sections 3.1, 3.2, 4.2, 5.1, 5.2, and 6.3).
  6. Support key cyberinfrastructure components such as shared software tools and a sustained R&D effort in computing, to fully exploit emerging technologies for projects. Prioritize computing and novel data analysis techniques for maximizing science across the entire field (section 6.7).
  7. Develop plans for improving the Fermilab accelerator complex that are consistent with the long-term vision of this report including neutrinos, flavor, and a 10 TeV pCM collider (section 6.6).

Recommendation 5: Invest in initiatives aimed at developing the workforce, broadening engagement, and supporting ethical conduct in the field. This commitment nurtures an advanced technological workforce not only for particle physics, but for the nation as a whole.

The following workforce initiatives are detailed in section 7:

  1. All projects, workshops, conferences, and collaborations must incorporate ethics agreements that detail expectations for professional conduct and establish mechanisms for transparent reporting, response, and training. These mechanisms should be supported by laboratory and funding agency infrastructure. The efficacy and coverage of this infrastructure should be reviewed by a HEPAP subpanel.
  2. Funding agencies should continue to support programs that broaden engagement in particle physics including strategic academic partnership programs, traineeship programs, and programs in support of dependent care and accessibility. A systematic review of these programs should be used to identify and remove barriers.
  3. Comprehensive work-climate studies should be conducted with the support of funding agencies. Large collaborations and national laboratories should consistently undertake such studies so that issues can be identified, addressed, and monitored. Professional associations should spearhead field-wide work-climate investigations to ensure that the unique experiences of individuals engaged in smaller collaborations and university settings are effectively captured.
  4. Funding agencies should strategically increase support for research scientists, research hardware and software engineers, technicians, and other professionals at universities.
  5. A plan for dissemination of scientific results to the public should be included in the proposed operations and research budgets of experiments. The funding agencies should include funding for the dissemination of results to the public in operation and research budgets.

Recommendation 6: Convene a targeted panel with broad membership across particle physics later this decade that makes decisions on the US accelerator-based program at the time when major decisions concerning an offshore Higgs factory are expected, and/or significant adjustments within the accelerator-based R&D portfolio are likely to be needed. A plan for the Fermilab accelerator complex consistent with the long-term vision in this report should also be reviewed.

The panel would consider the following:

  1. The level and nature of US contribution in a specific Higgs factory including an evaluation of the associated schedule, budget, and risks once crucial information becomes available.
  2. Mid- and large-scale test and demonstrator facilities in the accelerator and collider R&D portfolios.
  3. A plan for the evolution of the Fermilab accelerator complex consistent with the long- term vision in this report, which may commence construction in the event of a more favorable budget situation.

Area Recommendation 1: Increase DOE HEP-funded university-based theory research by $15 million per year in 2023 dollars (or about 30% of the theory program), to propel innovation and ensure international competitiveness. Such an increase would bring theory support back to 2010 levels. Maintain DOE lab-based theory groups as an essential component of the theory community.

Area Recommendation 2: For the ASTAE program to be agile, we recommend a broad, predictable, recurring, and preferably annual call for proposals. This ensures the flexibility to target emerging opportunities and fields. A program on the scale of $35 million per year in 2023 dollars is needed to ensure a healthy pipeline of projects.

Area Recommendation 3: To preserve the agility of the ASTAE program, project management requirements should be outlined for the portfolio and should be adjusted to be commensurate with the scale of the experiment.

Area Recommendation 4: A successful ASTAE experiment involves 3 phases: design, construction, and operations. A design phase proposal should precede a construction proposal, and construction proposals are considered from projects within the group that have successfully completed their design phase.

Area Recommendation 5: The DMNI projects that have successfully completed their design phase and are ready to be reviewed for construction should form the first set of construction proposals for ASTAE. The corresponding design phase call would be open to proposals from all areas of particle physics.

Area Recommendation 6: Increase the budget for generic Detector R&D by at least $20 million per year in 2023 dollars. This should be supplemented by additional funds for the collider R&D program.

Area Recommendation 7: The detector R&D program should continue to leverage national initiatives such as QIS, microelectronics, and AI/ML.

Area Recommendation 8: Increase annual funding to the General Accelerator R&D program by $10M per year in 2023 dollars to ensure US leadership in key areas.

Area Recommendation 9: Support generic accelerator R&D with the construction of small-scale test facilities. Initiate construction of larger test facilities based on project review and informed by the collider R&D program.

Area Recommendation 10: To enable targeted R&D before specific collider projects are established in the US, an investment in collider detector R&D funding at the level of $20M per year and collider accelerator R&D at the level of $35M per year in 2023 dollars is warranted.

Area Recommendation 11: To successfully deliver major initiatives and leading global projects, we recommend that:

  1. National laboratories and facilities should work with funding agencies to establish and maintain streamlined access policies enabling efficient remote and on-site collaboration by international and domestic partners.
  2. National laboratories should prioritize the facilitation of procurement processes and ensure robust technical support for experimenters.
  3. National laboratories and facilities should prioritize the creation and maintenance of a supportive, inclusive, and welcoming culture.

Area Recommendation 12: Form a dedicated task force, to be led by Fermilab with broad community membership. This task force is to be charged with defining a roadmap for upgrade efforts and delivering a strategic 20-year plan for the Fermilab accelerator complex within the next five years for consideration (Recommendation 6). Direct task force funding of up to $10M should be provided.

Area Recommendation 13: Assess the booster synchrotron and related systems for reliability risks through the first decade of DUNE operation, and take measures to preemptively address these risks.

Area Recommendation 14: To provide infrastructure for neutrino and/or dark matter experiments, we recommend DOE fund the cavern outfitting of the SURF expansion.

Area Recommendation 15: Maintaining the capabilities of NSF’s infrastructure at the South Pole, focused on enabling future world-leading scientific discoveries, is essential. We recommend continued and critically important direct coordination and planning between NSF-OPP and the CMB-S4 and IceCube-Gen2 projects.

Area Recommendation 16: Resources for national initiatives in AI/ML, quantum computing, and microelectronics should be leveraged and incorporated into research and R&D efforts to maximize the physics reach of the program.

Area Recommendation 17: Add support for a sustained R&D effort at the level of $9M per year in 2023 dollars to adapt software and computing systems to emerging hardware, incorporate other advances in computing technologies, and fund directed efforts to transition those developments into systems used for operations of experiments and facilities.

Area Recommendation 18: Through targeted investments at the level of $8M per year in 2023 dollars, ensure sustained support for key cyberinfrastructure components. This includes widely used software packages, simulation tools, information resources such as the Particle Data Group and INSPIRE, as well as the shared infrastructure for preservation, dissemination, and analysis of the unique data collected by various experiments and surveys in order to realize their full scientific impact.

Area Recommendation 19: Research software engineers and other professionals at universities and labs are key to realizing the vision of the field and are critical for maintaining a technologically advanced workforce. We recommend that the funding agencies embrace these roles as a critical component of the workforce when investing in software, computing, and cyberinfrastructure.

Area Recommendation 20: HEPAP, potentially in collaboration with international partners, should conduct a dedicated study aiming at developing a sustainability strategy for particle physics.